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Enquiry 2:  
How and why have conflicts been remembered through memorials?
About this unit                              Teaching ideas                                                                                      Pupils
Arrange memorials
   chronologically according
   to events and construction

 Analyse the changes in
   memorials’ design and
   purpose and give reasons
   for the changes.

 Consider and explain the
   purpose of memorials and
   use this to begin to judge
   memorial design.
Learning Objectives:

To consider the significance
of conflicts in a local/national context.

To explore how events have been interpreted and represented in different way through memorials.

Describe and explain how
and why memorials have changed over time.

Interpret the design of memorials in terms of the intentions of the designers.

To describe and explain the purpose of memorials.

To establish success criteria
for the design of memorials drawing on those studied.

To identify, select and use evidence from the historic environment.
Lesson 3: How has the design and purpose of memorials changed over time?:

Examine images of contrasting memorials and consider when they were built and what the purpose of them is (e.g. Nelson’s column and the 7/7 memorial).
Consider: which is the oldest/newest? Why?
How has design changed? Why?
Which do you think is most ‘effective’? Why?
How has the purpose / design changed?

Give out pictures of the various memorials. Students sort them based on when they think they were built. In discussion, think about what factors they considered, what clues they used (there are clues if necessary).

Use worksheet A to work find out about the memorials – hypothesise based on first impressions, then analyse details and finally evaluate the memorial (they will implicitly discuss criteria to discuss later).

Note - as part of this scheme a group of G&T students went to visit London to research memorials in depth, guided by some experts. If there are students in the group who have been to London, they can act as ‘guides’ in the lesson by asking questions to pupils and nudging their thinking and then giving further explanation.

Match the captions to the pictures using clues discussed above. Then complete worksheet A.

Having looked at range of memorials, fill in top half of worksheet B on how design has changed.

Optional activity: Sort the memorials into chronological order in terms of when the conflicts they remember happened. Discuss and link back to the previous lesson to consolidate knowledge of events.

Conclusion: Introduce the idea of the purpose of a memorial and ask what they are for before sharing the pdf slide on six purposes. This episode will draw on their earlier work for worksheet A. Students then use worksheet B again to analyse how the purpose of memorials seems to have changed/stayed the same.

Final Discussion Focus: Why do you think memorials have changed in terms of design and purpose? Which of these memorials do you consider ‘effective’? What criteria do you use to judge this? (This looks forward to the next lesson on judging the memorials in terms of design and purpose in preparation for what they want to achieve in later lessons for their own design.)
Homework: Students must now be doing their own research into the conflict of their choosing (in pairs?) so that in the following week they have enough info to begin basing their designs on.
UK Memorials over time.

 Memorials images on card.

  Memorial fact cards.

  Worksheets A & B
   (Describing & analysing
    memorials / changes to
    design & purpose

Gifted & Talented:
They will be involved in visiting memorials and working with DT to design memorials for post-1945 conflicts. They will therefore come to lessons with ‘expert’ knowledge to be used
during the discussion on design/purpose. This will help the learning of the whole group.
They can help students complete the first three activities by prompting
and asking questions.
They will be able to do activities two and three for  memorials they have not visited.
Timings (all pupils)
Two lesson.
G & T: Guided visit to London to explore existing memorials.
Lesson 4: What makes an effective memorial in the 21st Century?

Examine local memorials and test criteria hopefully developed at the end of the last lesson. Are they ‘effective’? What is their purpose? What conflicts do they represent? How relevant are they? If necessary, compare local to something contrasting (such as memorials to Holocaust on the pdf).

Recap the previous lesson — Which of the London/UK  memorials did you find most effective? Why?

Using Worksheet C, students decide what criteria they would use to judge the effectiveness of memorials. (They may draw on the purpose criteria from the previous lesson or come up with their own e.g. whether they tell a story. How people can interact with the memorial. What design techniques were used in construction. Where it is located? They can then add 6 criteria to their worksheets.

Modern Memorials: Using a combination of last lesson’s resources on UK memorials and some on other modern memorials from around the world, students can use the worksheet C to judge memorial design (include ‘purpose’ as an aspect of this if chosen).

Discussion: What makes an effective memorial – use the tasks to reach a whole-class consensus on the issue to be used as success criteria for their own design in the latter part of the project.

Extra Activities: Students can try to link memorials to different places and consider how different countries see memorial design and what they might think makes them ‘effective’. Also let them  match captions to find out what is what. Then consider how criteria for success might change depending on what the purpose of a memorial is / what it is for.
Analyse and evaluate

Establish success criteria
   for their own designs
Memorial success criteria.

Worksheet C on success

Images of other memorials
    and caption sheets
    (in pdf above).