The Malayan Emergency began in February 1948 with terrorist
attacks by Communist guerrillas on European settlers in the Malay Peninsula, then part of the British Empire. The Emergency was declared in July the same year.
The Communists were largely drawn from the ethnic Chinese community. Although Malaya gained independence in 1957, the Communist insurgency continued, prompting the British government to maintain a military presence in Malaya.
The Communists were unprepared for the British response of aggressive counter-attacks and search and destroy tactics. The Communist forces were very nearly destroyed in the initial fighting
but a pause caused by a delay in the arrival of British reinforcements and the death of the High Commissioner, gave the Communist Army time to regroup and retrain.
The Communist Force fell apart in 1960 after twelve years of jungle warfare. The British heart-and-minds campaign had been successful,
a direct contrast to the similar, but unsuccessful, US campaign in Vietnam.