The Dhofar region lies in Southern Oman, East of Yemen. Historically
it was the chief source of frankincense in the world.
However, its frankincense is now mostly used locally. The largest town
in the region is Salalah. The Salalah plain was once a well-cultivated
area with a sophisticated irrigation system. During the First World War, the land was fertile enough to produce food and grain to supply a
large proportion of the requirements of the British Army fighting
in Mesopotamia (Iraq).
A counter-insurgency campaign was fought here by the Sultan of Oman’s Armed Forces from 1965 to 1975 against guerilla fighters of the South Yemen- based communist National Democratic Front for the Liberation
of Oman and the Persian Gulf (NDFLOAG), which became the Popular Front For the Liberation of Oman (PFLO) whose aim was to depose the Sultan and take control over the Strait of Hormuz, thereby controlling the flow of oil supply from the Persian Gulf to the West.
The Sultan’s forces, assisted by support from the UK, Iran, Jordan and India, prevailed and subsequent to the campaign being declared over in December 1975, the active remainder of the PFLO forces surrendered.